Евгений Водзинский

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2 lesson

The present tense of the verb (Präsens).

Personal pronouns (Personalpronomen).


What is a verb? A verb is an independent part of speech that denotes the action or state of a person or object.

Action verb: schreiben (to write), kommen (to come), liegen (to lie), sitzen (to sit) etc.

Verbs of state: anlachen (to laugh), langweilen (miss), krummnehmen (take offense), kranken (to hurt, to suffer) etc.

A verb is a part of speech that is modifiable. It is characterized by a person, number and time. In a sentence, it is most often a predicate.

Our task in this lesson is to learn how to form verbs in the present tense and conjugate them by persons and numbers. The verbs in the Präsens denote actions in the present time, at the moment, usually or permanently. The verbs in the Präsens are formed from the indefinite form of the verb. It is also called an infinitive. When we open the dictionary to find the right verb,we find the infinitive. The ending of an infinitive is usually -еn or -n.

Formation of a present verb.

The presence of verbs = the base of the indefinite verb form (part of the verb without -en or -n) + personal endings

Conjugate several verbs in Präsens and let's see how the endings change depending on the face and number. Let's take verbs as examples lernen (to learn, to study), arbeiten (to work), heißen (be named, be called) and conjugate them.

Table №2.1. with personal pronouns:

Personal pronoun Verb base Ending Verb base Ending Verb base Ending
ich lern- e arbeit- e heiß- e
du lern- st arbeit- еst heiß- t
er/sie/es lern- t arbeit- еt heiß- t
wir lern- en arbeit- en heiß- en
ihr lern- t arbeit- еt heiß- t
lern- en arbeit- en heiß- en

Most verbs are conjugated as the verb lernen.

Verbs whose root ends in -t, or -d, conjugated as arbeiten. Compare the endings of verbs in the table lernen or arbeiten. The endings of the verb are taken as a basis lernen. And a letter is placed in front of them , unless, of course, it already appears in the ending. Thus, it turns out that all the endings of the verb arbeiten begin with a vowel letter , a in 1 person singular (ich - I) the word ends directly with the letter -е.

Verbs whose root ends in -s, , -x or -z, conjugated as heißen. Окончания спряжения тут такие же, как и у глагола lernen, which can be taken as a sample for comparison, except for the 2 person singular (du - ты), when is the ending given -t.

So, let's repeat the rules of verb conjugation in a generalized table form, which is very easy to remember.

Table №2.2.

Endings of conjugated verbs
Personal pronoun Most verbs Verb base
ending in -t, or -d
Verb base
ending in -s, -ß, -x or -z
ich e e e
du st еst t
er/sie/es t еt t
wir en en en
ihr t еt t
en en en

Using the personal pronoun and the verb in the appropriate form of the pronoun, we can Express the idea and write a simple declarative sentence in which 1st place is the subject is a personal pronoun, and on 2-m the predicate - verb.

Du lernst. - You study.

Ihr arbeitet. - You work.

I really want to tell you at least a little bit about how to ask a question in German. If we rearrange the subject and predicate, we get a question sentence.

Lernst du? - Do you study?

Arbeitet ihr? - Do you work?

And if we add to our narrative sentence just one word at the end-a particle nicht, this will be a negative sentence (with a negative verb).

Du lernst nicht. - You don't study.

Ihr arbeitet nicht. - You don't work.

Exercises are available after registration here

  • schreiben - to write
  • kommen - to come
  • liegen - to lie
  • sitzen - to sit
  • anlachen - to laugh
  • langweilen - to miss
  • krummnehmen - take offense
  • kranken - to hurt, to suffer
  • lernen - to learn, to study
  • arbeiten - to work
  • heißen - be named, be called